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    Dyes and Pigments

    Dyes refer to the organic substances enable the strong coloring of fiber and some other materials. There are various kinds of dyes. According to the source, they can be divided into natural dyes (such as vegetable dyes, animal dyes and mineral dyes, etc.) and synthetic dyes (or artificial dyes). According to the molecular structure, it can be divided into azo dyes, anthraquinone dyes, phthalocyanine dyes, aromatic dyes and nitro dyes. Based on the application methods, it can be divided into acid dyes, basic dyes, sulfur dyes, reactive dyes, disperse dyes, direct dyes and so on. Dyes have color, but substance having color does not necessarily belong to dyes. Dye must have a chromophore and auxochrome group. Dye contained in the ink should also have water-soluble group such as sulfonic acid group.

    Natural dyes are dyes obtained from animals, plants and minerals. According to sources they can be divided into: ① plant dyes; dyes extracted from the roots, stems, leaves and fruit of some plants such as indigo extracted from the leaves of indigo (blue); curcumin extracted from turmeric (yellow); alizarin extracted from madder (red) and so on; ② animal dyes; dyes extracted from animal body such as carmine extracted from cochineal, etc; ③ mineral dyes; dyes extracted from the colored inorganic substance of mineral such as chrome yellow, ultramarine blue, brown and other manganese. Owing to its various disadvantages compared with artificial dyes such as incomplete chromatography, application inconvenience and poor fastness, most natural dyes have been eliminated except for a few still in use.

    Synthetic dyes, also known as "artificial dyes." is mainly made through the chemical processing of coal tar (or oil processing) fractionation products (such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and carbazole, etc.), sometimes are also known as coal tar dyes. Since the earliest several synthetic dyes all took aniline as raw material, it is also known as "aniline dyes." Compared with the natural dyes, synthetic dyes have various kinds with complete chromatography and most of them being colorful, washable and being able to be produced in large-scale. Thus, almost all of the current so-called dye refers to synthetic dyes with its dyeing products being one of the common samples of Forensic evidence.

    Pigment is a colored, black, white or fluorescent particulate organic or inorganic solid. It is not soluble in water, oil or other applied media, but can be uniformly dispersed with the dispersion process being unaffected by the physical and chemical effects of the medium and still retaining its unique crystal or particle structure. Based on the chemical composition, it is divided into inorganic and organic pigments; according to color, it can be divided into white, red, yellow, black and other pigments; according to the source, it is divided into natural and synthetic pigments with natural pigments including mineral (inorganic) such as ocher, cinnabar, laterite and realgar, etc., also derivatives from animals and plants (organic) such as Garcinia and cochineal red; the synthetic pigments also include organic and inorganic pigments; according to the applications, it is classified into coloring pigment, extender pigments and functional pigments. Coloring pigment is inorganic and organic pigments that can endow the media with a variety of colors; extender pigment is a non-coloring and non-opacity pigments. In early time, it is mainly used to reduce product cost and improve the performance of coatings, plastics, rubber and other products. Therefore it is also called filler. Now there are natural products and synthetic products which have been processed into ultrafine-grained type. Owing to the low impurity content, fine particles and being available for artificial synthesis and various kinds of surface modifications, the synthetic products can also be used to reduce the amount of the paint with opacity (such as titanium dioxide) and improve the product performance, thereby now it is more suitable to be called as constitution (incremental) pigment. The main varieties of the extender pigment are mostly processed natural minerals such as natural calcium carbonate, barite powder, talc, mica, diatomaceous earth, quartz powder, clay and asbestos, etc. with a small number of synthetic products such as precipitated calcium carbonate, precipitated barium sulfate and synthetic silica; functional pigments is pigments that endow the product with particular function such as temperature-indicating paints make the color of the product change with temperature; anti-fouling paint with capability of poisoning and killing water creatures; luminescent pigment which is lighting in the dark; anti-rust paint for preventing corrosion and pearlescent pigments with pearl luster.

    Pigment is widely applied to paint, printing, rubber, plastics, paper, fibers, ceramics and other industries. It can endow the product with decorative, opacity, durability or special features. With advances in technology, a variety of high performance pigments will be further developed.

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    Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
    Pigment Yellow 14 Pigment Yellow 14 5468-75-7 C34H30Cl2N6O4
    Acid Orange 7 Acid Orange 7 633-96-5 C16H13N2NaO4S
    Pigment Yellow 83 Pigment Yellow 83 5567-15-7 C36H32Cl4N6O8
    Solvent Orange 2 Solvent Orange 2 2646-17-5 C17H14N2O
    Solvent Red 43 Solvent Red 43 15086-94-9 C20H8Br4O5
    Pigment Red 53:1 Pigment Red 53:1 5160-02-1 C34H24BaCl2N4O8S2
    Basic Violet 2 Basic Violet 2 3248-91-7 C22H24ClN3
    Basic Blue 11 Basic Blue 11 2185-86-6 C29H32ClN3
    Pigment Red 122 Pigment Red 122 980-26-7 C22H16N2O2
    Solvent Yellow 56 Solvent Yellow 56 2481-94-9 C16H19N3
    Basic Red 9 Basic Red 9 569-61-9 C19H17N3.ClH
    Crystal Violet Crystal Violet 548-62-9 C25H30ClN3
    Pigment Yellow 65 Pigment Yellow 65 6528-34-3 C18H18N4O6
    Tartrazine Tartrazine 1934-21-0 C16H13N4NaO9S2
    Acid Brown 14 Acid Brown 14 5850-16-8 C26H18N4O8S2.2Na
    Acid Red 87 Acid Red 87 548-26-5 C20H6Br4Na2O5
    Acid Red 27 Acid Red 27 915-67-3 C20H11N2Na3O10S3
    Acid Blue 119 Acid Blue 119 1324-80-7 C21H14NNaO6S
    Quinacridone Quinacridone 1047-16-1 C20H12N2O2
    Fuchsin Acid Fuchsin Acid 3244-88-0 C20H17N3Na2O9S3
    Carbon Black Carbon Black 1333-86-4 C
    Solvent Yellow 33 Solvent Yellow 33 8003-22-3 C18H11NO2
    ACID BLUE 113 ACID BLUE 113 3351-05-1 C32H24N5NaO6S2
    Acid Green 50 Acid Green 50 3087-16-9 C27H27N2NaO7S2
    Acid Green 25 Acid Green 25 4403-90-1 C28H23N2NaO8S2
    Pigment Red 49:1 Pigment Red 49:1 1103-38-4 C20H16BaN2O4S
    4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 4-Chloro-2-nitroaniline 89-63-4 C6H5ClN2O2
    Disperse Red 11 Disperse Red 11 2872-48-2 C15H12N2O3
    ACID RED 88 ACID RED 88 1658-56-6 C20H13N2NaO4S
    Pigment Red 4 Pigment Red 4 2814-77-9 C16H10ClN3O3
    Solvent Red 41 Solvent Red 41 3248-93-9 C20H19N3
    Solvent Red 23 Solvent Red 23 85-86-9 C22H16N4O
    ACID RED 151 ACID RED 151 6406-56-0 C22H15N4NaO4S
    Pigment Orange 13 Pigment Orange 13 3520-72-7 C32H24Cl2N8O2
    Pigment Red 48:2 Pigment Red 48:2 7023-61-2 C18H15CaClN2O6S
    Barium chromate Barium chromate 10294-40-3 BaCrO4
    3-Chloro-2-methylaniline 3-Chloro-2-methylaniline 87-60-5 C7H8ClN
    Pigment Yellow 17 Pigment Yellow 17 4531-49-1 C34H30Cl2N6O6
    Sulphur Black 1 Sulphur Black 1 1326-82-5 C6H4N2O5
    Solvent Red 27 Solvent Red 27 1320-06-5 C26H24N4O
    Pigment Orange 5 Pigment Orange 5 3468-63-1 C16H10N4O5
    Solvent Red 1 Solvent Red 1 1229-55-6 C17H14N2O2
    2-Amino-5-chlorobenzotrifluoride 2-Amino-5-chlorobenzotrifluoride 445-03-4 C7H5ClF3N
    Solvent Red 24 Solvent Red 24 85-83-6 C24H20N4O
    Pigment Yellow 3 Pigment Yellow 3 6486-23-3 C16H12Cl2N4O4
    Pigment Red 122 Pigment Red 122 16043-40-6 C22H16N2O2
    Pigment Blue 29 Pigment Blue 29 57455-37-5 Al6Na8O24S3Si6
    Pigment Red 57:1 Pigment Red 57:1 5281-04-9 C18H16CaN2O6S
    Acid blue 1 Acid blue 1 129-17-9 C27H33N2NaO6S2
    Acid Orange 10 Acid Orange 10 1936-15-8 C16H10N2Na2O7S2
    Pigment Yellow 81 Pigment Yellow 81 22094-93-5 C36H32Cl4N6O4
    Copper(II) phthalocyanine Copper(II) phthalocyanine 147-14-8 C32H16CuN8
    RHODAMINE 110 RHODAMINE 110 13558-31-1 C20H15ClN2O3
    Pigment Yellow 12 Pigment Yellow 12 5102-83-0 C36H34Cl2N6O4
    Basic Blue 17 Basic Blue 17 92-31-9 C15H16ClN3S
    TALC TALC 13376-74-4 H2Mg3O12Si4
    ORANGE I ORANGE I 523-44-4 C16H11N2NaO4S
    Solvent Black 3 Solvent Black 3 4197-25-5 C29H24N6
    Fast Yellow G Fast Yellow G 2512-29-0 C17H16N4O4
    2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline 2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline 99-55-8 C7H8N2O2
    1-(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-3-(5-amino-2-chloroanilino)-5-pyrazolone 1-(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-3-(5-amino-2-chloroanilino)-5-pyrazolone 53411-33-9 C15H10Cl4N4O
    Solvent Violet 36 Solvent Violet 36 61951-89-1
    Disperse Blue 3 Disperse Blue 3 2475-46-9 C17H16N2O3
    Basic Orange 14 Basic Orange 14 10127-02-3 C17H20Cl3N3Zn
    2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline 2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline 99-52-5 C7H8N2O2
    Pigment Red 176 Pigment Red 176 12225-06-8 C32H24N6O5
    Vat Violet 10 Vat Violet 10 128-64-3 C34H16O2
    Indigo Indigo 482-89-3 C16H10N2O2
    Calcium chromate Calcium chromate 13765-19-0 CaCrO4
    Pigment Red 170 Pigment Red 170 2786-76-7 C26H22N4O4
    Rhodamine B Rhodamine B 81-88-9 C28H31ClN2O3
    Permanent Violet RL Permanent Violet RL 6358-30-1 C35H23Cl2N3O2
    Pigment Violet 3 Pigment Violet 3 1325-82-2 C24H27N3
    Benzonitrile Benzonitrile 100-47-0 C7H5N
    Basic Red 5 Basic Red 5 553-24-2 C15H17ClN4
    CI NO 77605 CI NO 77605 12656-85-8 PbCrO4,PbMoO4,PbSO4
    Basic Red 2 Basic Red 2 477-73-6 C20H19ClN4
    Acid Red 92 Acid Red 92 18472-87-2 C20H5Br4Cl4NaO5
    Acid Green 1 Acid Green 1 19381-50-1 C30H15FeN3NaO15S3(-2)
    Acid Red 94 Acid Red 94 632-69-9 C20H5Cl4I4NaO5
    ACID BLUE 120 ACID BLUE 120 3529-01-9 C33H23N5Na2O6S2
    Lithopone Lithopone 1345-05-7 BaO5S2Zn2
    ORANGE G ORANGE G 1936-96-5 C6H9NS
    2,5-Dichloroaniline 2,5-Dichloroaniline 95-82-9 C6H5Cl2N
    Disperse Yellow 54 Disperse Yellow 54 12223-85-7 C18H11NO3
    Ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropionate hydrochloride Ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropionate hydrochloride 2318-25-4 C7H13NO3.ClH
    Solvent Yellow 2 Solvent Yellow 2 60-11-7 C14H15N3
    Pigment Red 8 Pigment Red 8 6410-30-6 C24H17ClN4O4
    CI 13015 CI 13015 2706-28-7 C12H12N3NaO6S2
    EOSIN EOSIN 17372-87-1 C20H6Br4Na2O5
    Sudan I Sudan I 842-07-9 C16H12N2O
    Disperse Yellow 3 Disperse Yellow 3 2832-40-8 C15H15N3O2
    Pigment Red 2 Pigment Red 2 6041-94-7 C23H15Cl2N3O2
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