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    ChemicalBook >> CAS DataBase List >>Imidazole


    CAS No.
    Chemical Name:
    Molecular Formula:
    Molecular Weight:
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    Last updated:2023-11-28 16:31:43

    Imidazole Properties

    Melting point 88-91 °C(lit.)
    Boiling point 256 °C(lit.)
    Density 1.01 g/mL at 20 °C
    vapor pressure <1 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
    refractive index 1.4801
    Flash point 293 °F
    storage temp. Store below +30°C.
    solubility H2O: 0.1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
    form crystalline
    pka 6.953(at 25℃)
    Specific Gravity 1.03
    color white
    Odor Amine like
    PH Range 9.5 - 11
    PH 9.5-11.0 (25℃, 50mg/mL in H2O)
    Water Solubility 633 g/L (20 ºC)
    Sensitive Hygroscopic
    λmax λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.10
    λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.10
    Merck 14,4912
    BRN 103853
    Dielectric constant 23.0(Ambient)
    Stability Stable. Incompatible with acids, strong oxidizing agents. Protect from moisture.
    LogP -0.02 at 25℃
    CAS DataBase Reference 288-32-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
    EWG's Food Scores 1
    NIST Chemistry Reference 1H-Imidazole(288-32-4)
    EPA Substance Registry System Imidazole (288-32-4)


    Risk and Safety Statements

    Symbol(GHS)  GHS hazard pictogramsGHS hazard pictogramsGHS hazard pictograms
    Signal word  Danger
    Hazard statements  H302-H314-H360D
    Precautionary statements  P260-P280-P301+P312-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340+P310-P305+P351+P338
    Hazard Codes  C,Xi,T
    Risk Statements  36/38-63-34-22-20/21/22-61
    Safety Statements  26-36/37/39-45-22-36-27-53
    RIDADR  UN 2923 8/PG 3
    WGK Germany  1
    RTECS  NI3325000
    Autoignition Temperature 480 °C
    TSCA  Yes
    HazardClass  8
    PackingGroup  III
    HS Code  29332990
    Toxicity LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 610 i.p.; 1880 orally (Nishie)
    NFPA 704
    3 0

    Imidazole price More Price(143)

    Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
    Sigma-Aldrich RDD044 Imidazole ReagentPlus?, 99%, Redi-Dri?, free-flowing 288-32-4 100G $46.9 2023-06-20 Buy
    Sigma-Aldrich RDD044 Imidazole ReagentPlus?, 99%, Redi-Dri?, free-flowing 288-32-4 500G $142 2023-06-20 Buy
    Sigma-Aldrich RDD044 Imidazole ReagentPlus?, 99%, Redi-Dri?, free-flowing 288-32-4 1KG $252 2023-06-20 Buy
    Sigma-Aldrich RDD044 Imidazole ReagentPlus?, 99%, Redi-Dri?, free-flowing 288-32-4 2.5KG $429 2023-06-20 Buy
    Sigma-Aldrich RDD039 Imidazole for molecular biology, ≥99% (titration), free-flowing, Redi-Dri? 288-32-4 100G $693 2023-06-20 Buy
    Product number Packaging Price Buy
    RDD044 100G $46.9 Buy
    RDD044 500G $142 Buy
    RDD044 1KG $252 Buy
    RDD044 2.5KG $429 Buy
    RDD039 100G $693 Buy

    Imidazole Chemical Properties,Uses,Production


    Imidazole group denotes a heterocyclic organic compound whose molecule contains a five-membered hetero-aromatic ring of two non-adjacent nitrogen atoms, that a carbon atom is placed between two nitrogen atoms. Imidazole is the universally used trivial name for 1,3-azole. Earlier given names were glyoxaline and iminazole. The importance of this aromatic ring system is reflected by its presence in naturally occurring histidine, histamine and the purines, and in several classes of pharmaceuticals. Imidazole can act as a base and as a weak acid. It exists in two tautomeric forms with the hydrogen atom taking position between the two nitrogen atoms.

    Chemical Properties

    Imidazole is a moderately strong base (pKb= 7.0), and a weak acid (pKa= 14.9). Imidazoles substituted with electron-withdrawing groups are stronger acids than imidazole itself; e.g., 4(5)-nitroimidazole has a pKa of 9.3. Imidazole is stable at 400°C, possesses considerable aromatic character, and undergoes the usual electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Nitration and sulfonation require, however, far more drastic conditions than the corresponding reactions with benzene. Other substitution reactions of imidazole include halogenation, hydroxymethylation, coupling with aromatic diazonium salts, and carboxylation.


    Imidazole[288-32-4] was first synthesized in 1858 by Debus from ammonia and glyoxal; it was originally named glyoxalin. The name imidazole was introduced by Hantzsch. Industrial production of imidazole began in the 1950s; a wide range of derivatives is now available in industrial quantities.


    Imidazole is used as a buffer in the range of pH 6.2-7.8. It is also an histamine antagonist. It acts as a chelator and forms complexes with various divalent cations. It is used as a corrosion inhibitor on certain transition metals such as copper. Its derivatives, like polybenzimidazole (PBI), act as fire retardants. It finds application in photography and electronics. Imidazole salts are used as ionic liquids and precursors to stable carbenes. Imidazole derivatives like ketoconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole are involved in the treatment of various systemic fungal infections. It is a part of the theophylline molecule, present in tea leaves and coffee beans, which stimulates the central nervous system.


    ChEBI: Imidazole is an imidazole tautomer which has the migrating hydrogen at position 1. It is a conjugate base of an imidazolium cation. It is a conjugate acid of an imidazolide. It is a tautomer of a 4H-imidazole. It is an important pharmacophore in drug discovery. Imidazole is used as a Karl Fischer reagent in analytical chemistry and a reagent in synthetic organic chemistry.


    Imidazole is a versatile heterocycle used in the preparation of various biologically active compounds such as the amino acid histidine and is present in many antifungal medication. It is also used ext ensively as a corrosion inhibitor on transition metals such as copper.It is used in organic synthesis and as an antiirradiationagent.
    Imidazole has been used:
    in the lysis, wash and elution buffer for the purification of histidine tagged Sonic Hedgehog(shh-N) protein.
    in elution buffer in stepwise gradient for the purification of histidine tagged aldo keto reductases using nickel affinity chromatography.
    as a component of homogenization buffer for the purification of phagosomal compartments from dendritic cell.


    Imidazole is formed by reacting glyoxal with formaldehyde in the presence of ammonium acetate in acetic acid. The driving energy is microwave radiation. More generally, this reaction is used to produce substituted imidazoles.
    synthesis of Imidazole
    Although there had been discoveries of various derivatives of imidazole in 1840, it was first reported in 1858. The synthesis process of imidazole follows the reaction between formaldehyde in ammonia and glyoxal. This process gives low yield of imidazole but it is still used to form imidazole with C-substitution (Wolkenberg et al., 2004).

    General Description

    Imidazole is a heterocyclic compound with a five-membered planar ring. It is amphoteric and highly polar. The pharmacophore of imidazole exists in bioactive compounds including amino acids, plant growth regulators and therapeutic agents.

    Health Hazard

    It is less toxic relative to pyrrole and otherfive-membered heterocyclic compounds ofnitrogen. Intraperitoneal administration ofimidazole caused somnolence, muscle contractions,and convulsions in mice. Theoral LD50 value in mice is in the range900 mg/kg.

    Fire Hazard

    Noncombustible solid.

    Biochem/physiol Actions

    Imidazole derivatives have antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer functionality. It interacts with DNA and also binds to protein and stops cell division. It also acts as a microtubule destabilizing agents and inhibits topoisomerase and Cytochrome P450 Family 26 Subfamily A Member 1 (CYP26A1) enzymes. Imidazole based anticancer drug find applications in cancer chemotherapy. It is used as buffer component for purification of the histidine tagged recombinant proteins in immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC).

    Mechanism of action

    N-substitution of imidazoles has created a family of drugs, called triazoles, that have the same mechanism of action as imidazoles, a similar or broader spectrum of activity, and less effect on human sterol synthesis. Both imidazoles and triazoles inhibit C-14α demethylation of lanosterol in fungi by binding to one of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes, which leads to the accumulation of C-14α methylsterols and reduced concentrations of ergosterol, a sterol essential for a normal fungal cytoplasmic membrane. Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 also decreases the synthesis of testosterone and glucocorticoids in mammals, an effect seen clinically with ketoconazole but not with later azoles[1].

    Purification Methods

    Crystallise imidazole from *benzene, CCl4, CH2Cl2, EtOH, pet ether, acetone/pet ether and distilled de-ionized water. Dry it at 40o under vacuum over P2O5. Distil it at low pressure. It is also purified by sublimation or by zone melting. [Snyder et al. Org Synth Coll Vol III 471 1955, Bredereck et al. Chem Ber 97 827 1964, Caswell & Spiro J Am Chem Soc 108 6470 1986.] 15N-imidazole crystallises from *benzene [Scholes et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 1660 1986]. [Beilstein 23 II 34, 23 III/IV 564, 23/4 V 191.]


    [1] Rex, J. and D. Stevens. “39 – Drugs Active against Fungi, Pneumocystis, and Microsporidia.” Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases 23 1 (2015): 479-494.

    Synthesis of Imidazole from N-BOC-IMIDAZOLE
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    View Lastest Price from Imidazole manufacturers

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    Imidazole pictures 2023-11-29 Imidazole
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